Analysis of the reasonableness of using electric drives in motor vehicles
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Automotive Industry Institute
Politechnika Warszawska
Publication date: 2016-12-20
The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji 2016;74(4)
The EU transport policy is to implement a plan aimed at a significant reduction of the CO2 emission, to be phased over the years 2020-2030-2050. Therefore, restrictions are to be gradually imposed on the use of vehicles with internal combustion (IC) engines, to eliminate such vehicles from urban traffic by 2050. Instead, the vehicles with alternative, low-emission drive systems will be promoted. At present, very high prices of electrochemical traction batteries have a significant share in the vehicle purchase price and electric vehicles are much more expensive than vehicles with conventional drive systems. The high purchase prices are compensated by low electric energy costs in comparison with the costs of hydrocarbon fuels. The present-day battery technologies should be considered an interim stage and should not be treated as a target, because they may turn out within a few years to be cost-consuming and obsolete solutions. On the other hand, electric traction motors have been built, developed, and used for many years and the risk of their failure is lower than the risk of a battery failure. The battery recharging process always involves the necessity of providing adequate infrastructure of a power supply network. Electric vehicles, especially their batteries and battery charging systems, are still at the development stage, without a crystallized vision of target solutions. Another problem is the lack of infrastructure and standardization. In spite of this, electrical drives (including those with hydrogen fuelling), as being characterized by zero emissions, may be expected to become in the long term a target and predominating solution.
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