Simulation method of comparative evaluation of the steerability of a passenger car when moving forwards and backwards
Janusz Kulma 1  
,   Zbigniew Lozia 1  
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Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Transport
Publication date: 2014-04-25
The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji 2014;63(1):51–70
The objective of this work was to compare the characteristics of steerability (ease of steering) of a specific motor vehicle when moving “forwards” and “backwards” (“reversing”). These terms have been put here in quotation marks because they depend on the convention adopted and because the answer to a question whether the vehicle moves “forwards” or “backwards” depends on an individual point of view. In this paper, the movement “forwards” is understood as the one where the vector of the predefined vehicle movement velocity is pointing towards the vehicle front. The movement “backwards” (“reversing”) may also be defined as vehicle movement in reverse gear and the movement “forwards” may be defined as the one in any other gear. To accomplish the objective of this work, a simulation method was employed. The vehicle velocity was limited to 40 km/h because it would be difficult to achieve higher velocities when “reversing” in real conditions and it would not be possible then to consider the results obtained in relation to actual manoeuvring. The steerability characteristics were more favourable when the vehicle moved forwards: the vehicle remained understeering over the whole range of lateral accelerations under consideration. In general, the understeering is considered better than the varying characteristics observed at “reversing”, when the vehicle may be understeering or oversteering depending on the value of its lateral acceleration and, in result of this, the vehicle behaviour becomes unpredictable and requires higher psychomotor capabilities of the driver.
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