Analysis of braking marks left by vehicles equipped with ABS with IR spectroscopy – different types of asphalt
Ewa Sys 1  
,   Przemyslaw Kubiak 1  
,   Łukasz Gosławski 1  
,   Wojciech Zakrzewicz 1  
More details
Hide details
Faculty of Automotive and Construction Machinery Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Polska
Ewa Sys   

Faculty of Automotive and Construction Machinery Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Polska
Submission date: 2021-05-19
Final revision date: 2021-07-22
Acceptance date: 2021-09-15
Publication date: 2021-09-30
The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji 2021;93(3):5–14
Detailed analysis of literature showed that there is no method that can be used in order to investigate skid marks left by vehicles equipped with ABS. Authors decided to identify braking trace by using IR spectroscopy. Preliminary studies have been performed and results were promising. Due to that fact authors decided to conduct detailed research where the influence of various factors on the possibility of revealing breaking traces would be taken into account. This article is the first in a series of articles taking into account the influence of various factors on the possibility of revealing breaking marks using IR spectroscopy. In this article the influence of the type of asphalt was studied. Authors conducted tests with the most popular types of asphalts used for the wearing course. 100 samples from 5 different types of asphalt were prepared. Each sample was measured 3 times to create its spectrum. The results were analyzed thoroughly using the dedicated SpectraGryph software. The analysis showed that for 4 out of 5 types of tested asphalt, the braking traces were visible at a wavelength of approximately 11 500 nm. Only for the rubberized asphalt there weren’t possibility to reveal skid mark.
Batterman S.D., Batterman S.C.: Introduction to Forensic Engineering and Accident Reconstruction. The Forensic Laboratory Handbook Procedures and Practice. Humana Press, 2011, 539–561, DOI:10.1007/978-1-60761-872-0_20.
Beauchamp G., Hessel D., Rose N.A., Fenton S.J., Voitel T.: Determining vehicle steering and braking from Yaw Mark Striations. SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars-Mechanical Systems. 2009, 2(1), 291–307, DOI:10.4271/2009-01-0092.
Brady D.J.: Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy. John Wiley & Sons. 2009, DOI: 10.1002/9780470443736.
Gosławski Ł., Kubiak P., Mrowicki A., Soghabatyan T., Sys E., Zou T.: Analysis of braking marks left by vehicles.
equipped with ABS with IR spectroscopy. The Archives of Automotive Engineering Archiwum Motoryzacji. 2019, 84(2), 33–43.
Grosch K.A.: Rubber abrasion and tire wear. Rubber Chemistry and Technology. 2008, 81(3), 470–505, DOI:10.5254/1.3548216.
Kolator B., Olszewski A., Walczak S., Wolak S.: Evaluation attempt of tire thermal skid mark developed during braking of wheeled vehicle. Studies & Proceedings Polish Association for Knowledge Management. 2014, 69, 91–100.
Menges F.: Spectragryph - optical spectroscopy software, Version 1.2.15, 2020, (accessed on 01 June 2021).
Nešić M., Lipovac K.: Analysis of traffic safety of vehicles equipped with ABS. European Automobile Engineers Cooperation-10th EAEC European Automotive Congress. 2005, 1, 294–306.
Oppenheimer P.: Comparing Stopping Capability of Cars with and without Antilock Braking Systems (ABS). SAE Technical Paper. 1988, 313–336, DOI: 10.4271/880324.
Piłat J., Radziszewski P., Król J.: Nowe technologie asfaltowe w budownictwie drogowym (New asphalt technologies in road construction). Inżynier Budownictwa. 2007, 1, 72–77.
Piłat J., Radziszewski P.: Nawierzchnie asfaltowe (Asphalt pavements). WKiŁ, Warszawa, 2010.
Prochowski L., Unarski J., Wach W., Wicher J.: Podstawy rekonstrukcji wypadków drogowych (Fundamentals of the reconstruction of road accidents). WKiŁ, Warszawa, 2008.
Riehm P., Unrau H.J., Gauterin F., Torbrügge S., Wies B.: 3D brush model to predict longitudinal tyre characteristics. Vehicle System Dynamics. 2019, 57(1), 17–43, DOI: 10.1080/00423114.2018.1447135.
Sarkissian G.: The Analysis of Tire Rubber Traces Collected After Braking Incidents Using Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry. Journal of forensic sciences. 2007, 52(5), 1050–1056, DOI: 10.1111/j.1556-4029.2007.00529.x.
Seipel G., Baumann F., Hermanutz R., Winner H.: Analysis of the influence of vehicle dynamic parameters on tire marks. Tire Science And Technology. 2013, 41(3), 196–213, DOI: 10.2346/tire.13.410302.
The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji Vol. 93, No. 3, 2021.
Theophanides T.: Introduction to Infrared Spectroscopy, Infrared Spectroscopy – Materials Science, Engineering and Technology. IntechOpen, 2012, DOI: 10.5772/49106.
Todoruț A., Cordoș N., Barabás I., Bălcău M.: Possibility of evaluation the pre-collisions speed and space crossing by vehicle within process of braking. Acta technica napocensis series-applied mathematics mechanics and engineering. 2014, 57(3), 385–392.
Trzaska E.: Asfalty drogowe – produkcja, klasyfikacja oraz właściwości (Road bitumens - production, classification and properties). Nafta-Gaz. 2014, 5, 325–328.
Tseng W.K., Liao S.X.: Estimation of Vehicle Pre-Braking Speed. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2012, 151, 165–169, DOI: 10.4028/
Žuraulis V., Levulytė L., Sokolovskij E.: Vehicle speed prediction from yaw marks using photogrammetry of image of traffic accident scene. Procedia engineering. 2016, 134, 89–94, DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.01.043.
Declaration of availability