Overview of design solutions for child seats
More details
Hide details
Kielce University of Technology
Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education, Hong Kong
Submission date: 2021-03-01
Final revision date: 2021-03-22
Acceptance date: 2021-06-14
Publication date: 2021-06-30
Corresponding author
Damian Paweł Frej   

Kielce University of Technology, Kielce University of Technology
The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji 2021;92(2):33-47
In order to increase the child's safety when traveling in a passenger car, special child seats are used to minimize the child's injuries in a car accident. The aim of the article is to discuss the topic of design solutions for child seats. It should be noted that child seats are built in order to increase the safety of the transported child during a car accident. Child seats are crash-tested. Unfortunately, no tests related to vibration comfort are carried out. Undoubtedly, attention should be paid to the vertical vibrations that penetrate from the road surface, through the structure of the passenger car, to the seat of the child seat. Vibration comfort is particularly important in the case of long journeys. Because the current child seats on the market are adjusted only to the weight and age of the child. Choosing the right car seat is not a simple task. Not every child will feel comfortable in a seat adapted only to weight and age. The anthropometric dimensions of the child are of great importance. Therefore, more and more child seats are created that allow you to change the position of the backrest or seat in such a way as to ensure both the safety and comfort of the child during the journey.
Beltran-Carbajal F, Valderrabano-Gonzalez A, Favela-Contreras A, Hernandez-Avila JL, Lopez-Garcia I, Tapia-Olvera R.: An Active Vehicle Suspension Control Approach with Electromagnetic and Hydraulic Actuators. Actuators. 2019; 8(2):35.
Blair J., Perdios A., Babul S., Young K., Beckles J., Pike I., et al: The appropriate and inappropriate use of child restraint seats in Manitoba, International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion, 2008, 15:3, 151-156, DOI: 10.1080/17457300802340980.
Brown J, Finch CF, Hatfield J, Bilston LE.: Child Restraint Fitting Stations reduce incorrect restraint use among child occupants. Accid Anal Prev. 2011 May;43(3):1128-33. doi: 10.1016/j.aap.2010.12.021..
BS 6841: 1987 Guide to measurement and evaluation of human exposure to whole-body mechanical vibration and repeated shock.
Cicchino J.B., Jermakian J.S.: Vehicle characteristics associated with LATCH use and correct use in real-world child restraint installations, Journal of Safety Research, 53, 2015, 77-85, . doi: 10.1016/j.jsr.2015.03.009.
Durbin DR, Elliott MR, Winston FK.: Belt-positioning booster seats and reduction in risk of injury among children in vehicle crashes. JAMA Network. 2003 Jun 4;289(21):2835-40. doi: 10.1001/jama.289.21.2835. PMID: 12783914.
Finn J. W., Wagner J. R., Walters E. J., Alexander K. E.: An Integrated Child Safety Seat Cooling System—Model and Test," in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 61 (5), 1999-2007, 2012, doi: 10.1109/TVT.2012.2191427.
Frej DP, Zuska A, Cadge K.: Analysis of vertical vibrations affecting a child transported in a child seat during a car passing over the release speed bump. The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji. 2019;86(4):111-125. doi:10.14669/AM.VOL86.ART8.
Frej DP., Grabski P.: The impact of the unbalanced rear wheel on the vibrating comfort of the child seat, Transportation Research Procedia, 40, 2019, 678-685, ISSN 2352-1465,
Gogola M., Ondruš J.: Road safety perspective of small children, 2020 XII International Science-Technical Conference AUTOMOTIVE SAFETY, Kielce, Poland, 2020, 1-5, doi: 10.1109/AUTOMOTIVESAFETY47494.2020.9293525.
Hatfield J., Poulos R.G., Murphy S.M., Flack L.K., Rissel C., Grzebieta R., McIntosh A.S.: Safety aspects of riding with children: Descriptive analysis of adult riders’ self-report, Accident Analysis & Prevention, 131, 2019, 33-44, ISSN 0001-4575,
Lai HH., Chen CH., Chen YC., Yeh JW., Lai CF.: Product design evaluation model of child car seat using gray relational analysis, Advanced Engineering Informatics, 23(2), 2009, 165-173,
14. (access in 25.02.2021).
18., (access in 25.02.2021).
Huang S., Peng Y., Yang X.,; Yang J., Zhou X., Zhang Ch., et al.: An Investigation on Child Occupant Safety in Passenger Vehicles Based on Accident Data from Changsha, China, 2013 Fifth International Conference on Measuring Technology and Mechatronics Automation, Hong Kong, China, 2013, 218-221, doi: 10.1109/ICMTMA.2013.325.
Huang, S., Reed, M.,: Comparison of Child Body Dimensions with Rear Seat Geometry,SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1142, 2006, 1-13,
ISO 2631-1: 1997 Mechanical vibration and shock. Evaluation of human exposure to whole–body vibration. Part 1: General requirements.
Jak mądrze wybrać fotelik samochodowy (How to choose a car seat wisely), (in):, (access in 25.02.2021).
Krajnak K.: Health effects associated with occupational exposure to hand-arm or whole body vibration, Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 21:5, 2018, 320-334, doi: 10.1080/10937404.2018.1557576.
Lee G, Pope C.N., Nwosu A., McKenzie L.B., Zhu M.: Child passenger fatality: Child restraint system usage and contributing factors among the youngest passengers from 2011 to 2015, Journal of Safety Research, 2019, 70, 33-38,
Muszyński A., Trzaska P., Wicher J., Mazurkiewicz Ł.: Analysis of the forces developing in the straps of the belts that restrain a child in a safety seat. The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji. 2015;67(1):113-126.
Posuniak P., Jaśkiewicz M., Kowalski K., Dąbrowski F.: Child restraint systems: Problems related to the safety of children transported in booster seats (without integral safety belts), 2018 XI International Science-Technical Conference Automotive Safety, Žastá, Slovakia, 2018, 1-7, doi: 10.1109/AUTOSAFE.2018.8373352.
Qassem W., Othman M.O., Abdul-Majeed S.: The effects of vertical and horizontal vibrations on the human body, Medical Engineering & Physics, 16 (2), 1994, 151-161,
Regulation No 129 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE) - Uniform provisions concerning the approval of enhanced child restraint systems used on board motor vehicles (Dz.U.UE L z dnia 29 marca 2014 r.).
Regulation No 44 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UN/ECE) - Uniform provisions concerning the approval of child restraint systems in power-driven vehicles (child restraints).
Stańczyk T.L., Zuska A.: Application of anthropodynamic dummies for evaluating the impact of vehicle seat vibrations upon human body. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics 2015, 53 (4), 1029–1039, DOI: 10.15632/jtam-pl.53.4.1029.
Terelak, P. Jurecki, R.: Legal aspects of childrens transport in vehicles, Instytut Logistyki i Magazynowania, Logistyka, Poznań 2015, 4, 6190—6196.
Togashi N., Shimono T., Nozaki T., Shibata T., Aoyama Y., Kitahashi Y.: Development of Three-Axis Seating Posture Holding Assist Chair and Proposed Variable Compliance Control, 2019 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics (ICM), Ilmenau, Germany, 2019, 455-460, doi: 10.1109/ICMECH.2019.8722874.
Traff C., Franco M., Churg R., PemDas S.: Adjustable booster child restraint system to enhance safety, 2011 IEEE 37th Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference (NEBEC), 2011, Doi: 10.1109/NEBC.2011.5778549.
Troxel W.M., Helmus T.C., Tsang F., Price C.C.: Evaluating the Impact of Whole-Body Vibration (WBV) on Fatigue and the Implications for Driver Safety, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, RR-1057-BOSE, 2015.
Vinoth M., Prema D.: Automated car safety seat cooling system using thermoelectric cooler, 2014 International Conference on Computation of Power, Energy, Information and Communication (ICCPEIC), 2014 Doi: 10.1109/ICCPEIC.2014.6915413.
Wicher J., Więckowski D.: Influence of vibrations of the child seat on the comfort of child’s ride in a car (Wpływ drgań fotelika samochodowego na komfort podróżowania dziecka w samochodzie), Eksploatacja i Niezawodność, Nr 4/2010, 102-110.
Więckowski D.: An attempt to estimate natural frequencies of parts of the child's body (Próba oszacowania częstotliwości drgań własnych części ciała dziecka), The Archives of Automotive Engineering - Archiwum Motoryzacji, 55 (1), 2012, 61-74.
Zuska A., Więckowski D.: Laboratory tests of a car seat suspension system equipped with an electrically controlled damper. Scientific Journals of the Maritime University of Szczecin, (Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej w Szczecinie) 2019, 60 (132), 192–199, DOI: 10.17402/389.
Zuska A., Stańczyk T.L.: Analysis of the impact of selected anthropometric parameters on the propagation of vertical vibration in the body of a seated person (driver). Journal of Vibroengineering, 17, 7, 2015, 3936-3948.
Analysis of the selection of a child seat
Łukasz Karwala
The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji
Impact of Consumer Value on the Selection of a Safe Child Seat
Damian Frej, Paweł Grabski
Communications - Scientific letters of the University of Zilina
Declaration of availability
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top