Drivers' use of different types of multimedia devices while driving - a survey study
More details
Hide details
Department of Automotive Engineering and Transport, Kielce University of Technology, Polska
Submission date: 2023-10-09
Final revision date: 2024-01-10
Acceptance date: 2024-01-18
Publication date: 2024-03-28
Corresponding author
Katarzyna Weronika Haberka   

Department of Automotive Engineering and Transport, Kielce University of Technology, Al. Tysiąclecia P.P. 7, 25-314, Kielce, Polska
The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji 2024;103(1):5-20
Accidents and collisions continue to be an ongoing problem in road safety. While driving, drivers are influenced by stimuli that can affect their behaviour in various ways. Nowadays, various types of multimedia devices have become popular, which, when used by drivers while driving, can influence driver attention. The literature undertakes studies of the impact of such devices on the driver's degree of distraction as measured, for example, by the driver's reaction time. A survey was conducted to identify sources of driver distraction. A total of 237 drivers aged between 18 and 78 years participated in the sample. Of the respondents, 64.6% use a mobile phone while driving, 20.3% use a smartwatch, 33.3% use a multimedia control system for vehicle functions. Respondents indicated that they had either witnessed (18.1%) or been involved (6.3%) in a collision/accident when the driver used various types of multimedia devices while driving. Of those surveyed, 2.1% had caused a collision or accident by using a multimedia device while driving. Respondents are aware of the risks of using different types of media devices while driving, but they still use them. The analyses of the survey data will be used in future research using a car simulator.
Alm H., Nilsson L.: Effects of mobile telephone use on elderly drivers' behaviour-including comparisons to young drivers behaviour. Statens Väg-och Trafikinstitut., VTI särtryck, 1991, 176.
Bian Y., Zhang X., Wu Y., Zhao X., Liun H., Su Y.: Influence of prompt timing and messages of an audio navigation system on driver behavior on an urban expressway with five exits. Accident Analysis& Prevention. 2021, 157, 106155, DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2021.106155.
Budziszewski P.: Autonomiczny system awaryjnego hamowania – działanie (Autonomous emergency braking system – function). Bezpieczeństwo Pracy: nauka i praktyka. 2015, 5, 22–24, (in Polish).
Caird J.K., Johnston K.A., Willness C.R., Asbridge M., Steel P.: A meta-analysis of the effects of texting on driving. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2014, 71, 311–318, DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2014.06.005.
Cook J.L., Jones R.M.: Texting and accessing the web while driving: traffic citations and crashes among young adult drivers.Traffic injury prevention. 2011, 12(6), 545–549, DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2011.620999.
Dozza M., Flannagan C.A., Sayer J.R.: Real-world effects of using a phone while driving on lateral and longitudinal control of vehicles. Journal of safety research. 2015, 55, 81–87, DOI: 10.1016/j.jsr.2015.09.005.
Giang W.C., Chen H.Y.W., Donmez B.: Smartwatches vs. Smartphones: Notification engagement while. driving. International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction (IJMHCI). 2017, 9(2), 39–57, DOI: 10.4018/IJMHCI.2017040103.
Giang W.C., Hoekstra-Atwood L., Donmez B.: Driver engagement in notifications: A comparison of visual-manual interaction between smartwatches and smartphones. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. 2014. 2161–2165, DOI: 10.1177/1541931214581454.
Haberka K., Jurecki R.: A Review of Selected Factors Affecting Driver Distraction. Transport and Communications. 2022, 10(2), 1–6, DOI: 10.26552/tac.C.2022.2.1.
Hatfield J., Chamberlain T.: The impact of in-car displays on drivers in neighbouring cars: Survey and driving simulator experiment. Transportation research part F: Traffic psychology and behaviour. 2008, 11(2), 137–146, DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2007.08.006.
Hill L., Baird S., Torres K., Obrochta C., Jain P.: A survey of distracted driving and electronic device use among app-based and taxi drivers. Traffic injury prevention. 2021, 22(S1), S27–S31, DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1935905.
Jurecki R.: Badania czasu reakcji młodych kierowców w różnych warunkach pracy realizowane w symulatorze jazdy (Research the reaction time of young drivers in different conditions of driver work realized in a driving symulator). Logistyka. 2014, 6, 5003–5014, (in Polish).
Jurecki R.S.: An analysis of collision avoidance manoeuvres in emergency traffic situations. The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji. 2016, 72(2), 73–93, DOI: 10.14669/AM.VOL72.ART2.
Komenda Główna Policji, Biuro Ruchu Drogowego: Wypadki drogowe w Polsce w 2022 roku (Road Accidents in Poland in 2022), Warszawa, 2023, (in Polish). Available online: https://statystyka.policja. pl/st/ruch-drogowy/76562,Wypadki-drogowe-raporty-roczne.html (accessed on 1 October 2023).
Lejda K., Karbowniczek D.: Bezpieczeństwo systemu człowiek-pojazd-otoczenie (CPO) w ruchu drogowym (Safety of human-vehicle-environment in road traffic). Autobusy: technika, eksploatacja, systemy transportowe., 2013, 14(3), 1343–1348, (in Polish).
Lipovac K., Derić M., Tešić M., Andrić Z., Marić B.: Mobile phone use while driving-literary review. Transportation research part F: Traffic psychology and behaviour. 2017, 47, 132–142, DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2017.04.015.
Liu Y., Alsaleh R., Sayed T.: Modeling the influence of mobile phone use distraction on pedestrian reaction times to green signals: A multilevel mixed-effects parametric survival model. Transportation research part F: Traffic psychology and behaviour. 2021, 81, 115–129, DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2021.05.020.
Motyka M.A.: Pokolenie smombów: charakterystyka i typologia (The smombie generation: characteristics and typology). Przestrzeń Społeczna. 2018, 15(1), 169–200, (in Polish).
Musicant O., Lotan T., Albert G.: Do we really need to use our smartphones while driving? Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2015, 85, 13–21, DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2015.08.023.
Perlman D., Samost A., Domel A.G., Mehler B., Dobres J., Reimer B.: The relative impact of smartwatch and smartphone use while driving on workload, attention and driving performance. Applied ergonomics. 2019, 75, 8–16, DOI: 10.1016/j.apergo.2018.09.001.
Redelmeier D.A., Tibshirani R.J.: Association between cellular-telephone calls and motor vehicle collisions. New England Journal of Medicine. 1997, 336(7), 453–458, DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199702133360701.
Ustawa z dnia 20 czerwca 1997 roku Prawo o ruchu drogowym.
Violanti J.M., Marshall J.R.: Cellular phones and traffic accidents: an epidemiological approach. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 1996, 28(2), 265–270, DOI: 10.1016/0001-4575(95)00070-4.
Watling C.N., Shaw L.M., Watling H.: Sleep-impaired emotional regulation, impaired cognition, and poor sleep health are associated with risky sleepy driving in young adults. Traffic injury prevention. 2020, 21(2), 133–138, DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2019.1710499.
Yeo J., Park S.H.: Effect of smartphone dependency on smartphone use while driving. Sustainability. 2021, 13(10), 5604, DOI: 10.3390/su13105604.
Zhang L., Cui B., Yang M., Guo F., Wang J.: Effect of using mobile phones on driver’s control behavior based on naturalistic driving data. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2019, 16(8), 1464, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16081464.
Żardecki D., Pijanowski B.: Selected vehicle monitoring problems with the" e-Call" system taken as an example. The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji. 2013, 61(3), 25–41, 109–125.
Declaration of availability
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top