Long-term test of an electric vehicle charged from a photovoltaic carport
More details
Hide details
Department of Transportation and Informatics, University of University of Economics and Innovation in Lublin, Polska
Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste, Italy
Submission date: 2019-11-16
Final revision date: 2019-12-04
Acceptance date: 2019-12-13
Publication date: 2019-12-23
Corresponding author
Arkadiusz Małek   

Department of Transportation and Informatics, University of University of Economics and Innovation in Lublin, Projektowa 4, 20-209, Lublin, Polska
The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji 2019;86(4):55-63
The article includes experimental investigations of electricity consumption over a distance of 30,000 km by a small city electric vehicle. During that time period, the vehicle was charged in most cases from a photovoltaic carport with a peak power of 3 kWp. The analyses include vehicle mileage and the number of times the battery has been charged during 5 years of operation. In addition, the amount of energy generated by the photovoltaic carport was also measured. During the entire research period, the small electric vehicle was charged with State of Charge (SoC) 50% almost 900 times. Then, an analysis was performed to determine the adequacy of the carport peak power selection for the energy needs of the electric vehicle. Based on an analysis of the amount of electricity produced by the carport during the season of use of the electric vehicle, it may be concluded that the average production of electricity in the selected period is about 2 times higher than that required to fully charge the electric vehicle (100% of SoC). Therefore, when designing the carport, the power required to charge the electric vehicle was correctly forecast.
Caban J., Zarajczyk J., Małek A.: Possibilities of using electric drives in city buses. Proceeding of 23rd International Scientific Conference Transport Means. 2019, Palanga, Lithuania, 543-547.
Choudhary P., Srivastava R.K.: Sustainability perspectives – a review for photovoltaic photovoltaic trends and growth opportunities. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2019, 227, 589-612, DOI:10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.04.107.
Colmenar-Santos, A., Muñoz-Gómez A-M, Rosales-Asensio E., López-Rey Á.: Electric vehicle charging strategy to support renewable energy sources in Europe 2050 low-carbon scenario. Energy. 2019, 183, 61-74, DOI: 10.1016/
Conradie Pieter D.F., Olabanji O. Asekun, Skrúcaný T., Kendra M., Stopka O.: The effect of fuel on the energy consumption and production of greenhouse gases in transport. The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji. 2018, 82(4), 5-14, DOI:10.14669/AM.VOL82.ART1.
Fathabadi H.: Novel grid-connected solar/wind powered electric vehicle charging station with vehicle-to-grid technology. Energy. 2017, 132, 1-11, DOI:10.1016/
Gao S., Jia H., Liu J., Liu C.: Integrated configuration and charging optimization of aggregated electric vehicles with renewable energy sources. Energy Procedia. 2019, 158, 2986-2993, DOI:10.1016/j.egypro.2019.01.968.
García I.I., Jeffrey M.: Recharging of electric cars by solar photovoltaics, Electric Vehicles: Prospects and Challenges. 2017, 415-487, DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-803021-9.00012-4.
Globisch J., Plötz P., Dütschke E., Wietschel M.: Consumer preferences for public charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. Transport Policy. 2019, 81, 54-63, DOI:10.1016/j.tranpol.2019.05.017.
Gnann T., Funke S., Jakobsson N., Plötz P., Sprei F., Bennehag A.: Fast charging infrastructure for electric vehicles: Today’s situation and future needs. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2018, 62, 314-329, DOI:10.1016/j.trd.2018.03.004.
Good C., Shepero M., Munkhammar J., Boström T.: Scenario-based modelling of the potential for solar energy charging of electric vehicles in two Scandinavian cities. Energy.2019, 168, 111-125, DOI:10.1016/
Jaszczur M., Hassan Q., Styszko K., Teneta J.: Impact of dust and temperature on energy conversion process in photovoltaic module. Thermal Science. 2019, 23(4), 1199-1210, DOI:10.2298/TSCI19S4199J.
Kostopoulos Em., Spyropoulos G., Christopoulos K., Kaldellis J. K. : Solar energy contribution to an electric vehicle needs on the basis of long-term measurements. Procedia Structural Integrity. 2018, 10, 203-210, DOI:10.1016/j.prostr.2018.09.029.
Liberto C., Valenti G., Orchi S., Lelli M., Nigro M., Ferrara M.: The Impact of Electric Mobility Scenarios in Large Urban Areas: The Rome Case Study. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems. 2018, 19(11), 3540–3549, DOI: 10.1109/TITS.2018.2832004.
Mehrjerdi H.: Off-grid solar powered charging station for electric and hydrogen vehicles including fuel cell and hydrogen storage. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2019, 44(23), 11574-11583, DOI:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.03.158.
Merkisz-Guranowska A., Daszkiewicz P.: Possibility of reducing CO2 emissions for example electric vehicles. Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport. 2014, 21(3), 211–217, DOI: 10.5604/12314005.1133215.
Muha R., Perosa A.: Energy consumption and carbon footprint of an electric vehicle and a vehicle with an internal combustion engine. Transport Problems. 2018, 13(2), 49–58, DOI: 10.20858/tp.2018.13.2.5.
Nait-Sidi-Moh A., Ruzmetov A., Bakhouya M., Naitmalek Y., Gaber J.: A Prediction Model of Electric Vehicle Charging Requests. Procedia Computer Science. 2018, 141, 127-134, DOI:10.1016/j.procs.2018.10.158.
Novoa L., Brouwer J.: Dynamics of an integrated solar photovoltaic and battery storage nanogrid for electric vehicle charging. Journal of Power Sources. 2018, 399, 166-178, DOI:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.07.092.
Nunes P., Figueiredo R., Brito M.C.: The use of parking lots to solar-charge electric vehicles. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2016, 66, 679-693, DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2016.08.015.
Šarkan B., Gnap J., Kiktová M.: The importance of hybrid vehicles in urban traffic in terms of environmental impact. The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji. 2019, 85(3) ,115-122, DOI:10.14669/AM.VOL85.ART8.
Seddig K., Jochem P., Fichtner W.: Two-stage stochastic optimization for cost-minimal charging of electric vehicles at public charging stations with photovoltaics. Applied Energy. 2019, 242, 769-781, DOI:10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.03.036.
Şenol M., Abbasoğlu S., Kükrer O., Babatunde A.A.: A guide in installing large-scale PV power plant for self consumption mechanism. Solar Energy. 2016, 132, 518-537, DOI:10.1016/j.solener.2016.03.035.
Stańczyk T.L., Hyb L.: Technological and organisational challenges for e-mobility. The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji. 2019, 84(2), 57-70, DOI:10.14669/AM.VOL84.ART5.
24. (accessed on 16.08.2019).
Innovative approach to electric vehicle diagnostics
Arkadiusz Małek, Rodolfo Taccani
The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji
The use of deep recurrent neural networks to predict performance of photovoltaic system for charging electric vehicles
Arkadiusz Małek, Andrzej Marciniak
Open Engineering
Organization of Urban Transport Organization – Presentation of Bicycle System and Bicycle Infrastructure in Lublin
Agnieszka Dudziak, Jacek Caban
LOGI – Scientific Journal on Transport and Logistics
Technological developments in vehicles with electric drive
Emilia Szumska, Rafał Jurecki
Combustion Engines
Selection of the photovoltaic system power for the electric vehicle
Arkadiusz Małek, Andrzej Marciniak
The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji
Declaration of availability
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top