Driver’s distraction and its potential influence on the extension of reaction time
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Polska
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Lublin University of Technology, Polska
Faculty of Production Engineering, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Polska
Jacek Caban   

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, 20-618, Lublin, Polska
Data nadesłania: 05-12-2022
Data ostatniej rewizji: 17-12-2022
Data akceptacji: 19-12-2022
Data publikacji: 30-12-2022
The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji 2022;98(4):65–78
The driver's reaction time is one of the most important parameters for the road pre-accident analysis. There are known the results of tests, in which the value of this parameter was determined in expected and unexpected road situations. But in some cases, this time may be longer e.g. in situations in which the driver's attention may be distracted by keeping observations other than the area, in front of the car's surroundings. There are many manoeuvres, when the driver is obliged to observe many areas at the same time. Thus, his attention must be turned away from the main area – in front of the vehicle. The paper presents the results of tests involving the measurement of the driver's attention time focused on observing the surrounding other than the car's path. During the test, the driver's attention was focus on observing the side and back mirror, car radio and at the mobile phone. Certain values can be potentially considered as extending the typical driver's reaction time. The results of the presented tests have practical applications and can be used in the process of issuing opinions on traffic accidents.
Ágoston G., Madlenák R.: Road safety macro assessment model: Case study for Hungary. Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering. 2021, 49(1), 89–92 DOI: 10.3311/PPtr.13083.
Cernicky L., Kalasova A.: The application of telematic technologies in Slovakia - the possibility of improving road safety in the Slovak Republic. Scientific Journal of Silesian University of Technology-Series Transport. 2015, 86, 5–11.
Čulík K., Kalašová A., Štefancová V.: Evaluation of driver’s reaction time measured in driving simulator. Sensors. 2022, 22(9), 3542, DOI: 10.3390/s22093542.
Dhananjay A., Mote S., Prajapati S., Chacharkar P., Rana N., Vispute V.: To Analyze Reaction Time of Drivers Based on Drivers Characteristics- A Review. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE). 2017, 14(2), 16–18, DOI: 10.9790/1684-1402041618.
Droździel P., Krzywonos L., Madlenak R., Rybicka I.: Selected aspects of analyses of failure rates of active safety systems in buses. Communications-Scientific Letters of the University of Žilina. 2014, 16(3), 114–119.
Droździel P., Tarkowski S., Rybicka I., Wrona R. Drivers’ reaction time research in the conditions in the real traffic. Open Engineering. 2020, 10(1), 35–47, DOI: 10.1515/eng-2020-0004.
Droździel P., Wrona R.: Legal and utility problems of accidents on express roads and motorways. 11th International Science and Technical Conference Automotive Safety. Casta, Slovakia. 2018, 1–5, DOI: 10.1109/AUTOSAFE.2018.8373315.
Egaji O.A., Chakhar S., Brown D.: An innovative decision rule approach to tyre pressure monitoring. Expert Systems with Applications. 2019, 124, 252–270, DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2019.01.051.
Erd A., Jaśkiewicz M., Koralewski G., Rutkowski D., Stokłosa J.: Experimental research of effectiveness of brakes in passenger cars under selected conditions. 11th International Science and Technical Conference Automotive Safety, 2018, 1–5, DOI: 10.1109/AUTOSAFE.2018.8373299.
Ghadi M., Torok A., Tanczos K.: Study of the economic cost of road accidents in Jordan. Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering. 2018, 46(3), 129–134, DOI: 10.3311/PPtr.10392.
Gogola M., Hocova M.: Deurbanisation and mobility. 6th Transport Research Arena (TRA), Transportation Research Procedia. 2016, 14, 1193–1200, DOI: 10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.190.
Gosławski Ł., Kubiak P., Mrowicki A., Soghabatyan T., Sys E., Wang Y-W., Zou T.: Analysis of braking marks left by vehicles equipped with ABS with IR spectroscopy. The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji. 2019, 84(2), 33–43, DOI: 10.14669/AM.VOL84.ART3.
Green M.: How long does it take to stop? Methodological analysis of driver perception-brake times. Transportation Human Factors. 2000, 2(3), 195–216.
Grencik J., Ruman F.: Proposal of new maintenance scheme of air brake system on semi-trailer combination. Diagnostyka. 2015, 16(2), 11–19.
Guzek M.: Driver’s reaction time in the context of an accident in road traffic. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. 2020, 1032, 184–193, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-27687-4_19.
Hudak M., Madlenak R.: The research of driver distraction by visual smog on selected road stretch in Slovakia. Procedia Engineering. 2017, 178, 472–479, DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.01.090.
Hurtova I., Sejkorova M., Verner J., Kucera M.: Preference and area coordination of public transport in modern city. Engineering for Rural Development. 2018, 17, 2085–2091.
Jurecki R., Stańczyk T., Jaśkiewicz M.: Driver’s reaction time in a simulated, complex road incident. Transport. 2017, 32(1), 44–45, DOI: 10.3846/16484142.2014.913535.
Jurecki R., Stańczyk T.: The test methods and the reaction time of drivers. Eksploatacja i Niezawodność. 2011, 51(3), 84–91.
Kalasova A., Mikulski J., Kubikova A.: The impact of intelligent transport systems on an accident rate of the chosen part of road communication network in the Slovak Republic. Communications in Computer and Information Science. 2016, 640, 47–58, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-49646-7_5.
Kampf R., Stopka O., Kubasakova I., Zitricky V.: Macroeconomic evaluation of projects regarding the traffic constructions and equipment. Procedia Engineering. 2016, 161, 1538–1544, DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.08.623.
Kucmin T., Kucmin A., Turska D., Turski A., Nogalski A.: Coping styles and dispositional optimism as predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms intensity in paramedics. Psychiatria Polska. 2018, 52(3), 557–571, DOI: 10.12740/PP/68514.
Kulkarni A., Nanaware R., Kulkarni A., Garud V.: Synthesis and optimization of steering mechanism of extralong semi-trailer vehicle. Procedia Structural Integrity. 2019, 14, 158–167, DOI: 10.1016/j.prostr.2019.05.021.
Macioszek E., Kurek A.: A case study analysis of roundabouts entry capacity localised on one of the main road in Sosnowiec city (Poland). Scientific Journal of Silesian University of Technology. Series Transport. 2019, 105, 139–156, DOI: 10.20858/sjsutst.2019.105.12.
Madlenak R., Hudak M.: The research of visual pollution of road infrastructure in Slovakia. Communications in Computer and Information Science. 2016, 640, 415–425, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-49646-7_35.
Mamcarz P., Droździel P., Madleňáková L., Sieradzki A., Droździel P.: Level of occupational stress, personality and traffic incidents: Comparative study of public and freight transport drivers. Transportation Research Procedia. 2019, 40, 1453–1458, DOI: 10.1016/j.trpro.2019.07.201.
Matijosius J., Ciziuniene K., Petraska A., Sokolovskij E.: The comparison of the accident rates in heavy transport sectors of Europe and USA. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Traffic and Transport Engineering (ICTTE), Belgrade, Serbia, 2016, 1097–1101.
Matuszak Z., Nowak A., Zabinska I., Martinez de Oses F.X.: Road safety on the example of the city of Bytom. The Archives of Automotive Engineering — Archiwum Motoryzacji. 2019, 83(1), 43–57, DOI: 10.14669/AM.VOL83.ART3.
McGehee D.V., Mazzae E.N., Baldwin G.H.S.: Driver reaction time in crash avoidance research: validation of a driving simulator study on a test track. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. 2000, 44(20), 3–320, DOI: 10.1177/154193120004402026.
Mensing F., Bideaux E., Trigui R., Tattegrain H.: Trajectory optimization for eco-driving taking into account traffic constraints. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2013, 18(1), 55–61, DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2012.10.003.
Orynycz O., Tucki K., Wasiak A., Sobótka R., Gola A.: Evaluation of the brake’s performance dependence upon technical condition of car tires as a factor of road safety management. Energies. 2020, 13(1), 9, DOI: 10.3390/en13010009.
Pawar N., Velaga N.: Modelling the influence of time pressure on reaction time of drivers. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. 2020, 72, 1–22, DOI: 10.1016/j.trf.2020.04.017.
Poliak M., Mrnikova M., Simurkova P., Medvid P., Poliakova A., Hernandez S.: Social law in road transport like tool safety road transport. 11th International Science-Technical Conference Automotive Safety, Casta, Slovakia, 2018, 1–7, DOI: 10.1109/AUTOSAFE.2018.8373317.
Rievaj V., Vrabel J., Hudak A.: Tire inflation pressure influence on a vehicle stopping distances. International Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering. 2013, 2(2), 9–13, DOI: 10.5923/j.ijtte.20130202.01.
Rybicka I., Drozdziel P., Stopka O., Luptak V.: Methodology to propose a regional transport organization within specific integrated transport system: a case study. Transport Problems. 2018, 13(4), 115–125, DOI: 10.20858/tp.2018.13.4.11.
Samociuk W., Krzysiak Z., Bukova B., Brumercikova E., Bąkowski H., Krzywonos L.: Analysis of international transport of chemical products in the countries of the Visegrad Group. Przemysł Chemiczny. 2018, 97(6), 829–833, DOI: 10.15199/62.2018.6.2.
Skrucany T., Harantova V., Kendra M., Barta D.: Reducing energy consumption by passenger car with using of non-electrical hybrid drive technology. Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal. 2017, 11(1), 166–172, DOI: 10.12913/22998624/66505.
Stopka O., Simkova I., Konećny V.: The quality of service in the public transport and shipping industry. Naše More. 2015, 62(3), 126–130, DOI: 10.17818/NM/2015/SI7.
Svetina M.: The reaction times of drivers aged 20 to 80 during a divided attention driving. Traffic Injury Prevention. 2016, 17(8), 810–814, DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2016.1157590.
Šarkan B., Semanova,S., Harantova V., Stopka O., Chovancova M., Szala M.: Vehicle fuel consumption prediction based on the data record obtained from an engine control unit. III International Conference of Computational Methods in Engineering Science (CMES’18), Kazimierz Dolny, Poland, 2018. MATEC Web of Conferences. 2019, 252, 06009, 1–4, DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201925206009.
Unarski J.: Czas reakcji kierowców – standardy a rzeczywistość. Paragraf na drodze. 1999, 6–7, Instytut Ekspertyz Sądowych, Kraków.
Ustawa z dnia 20 czerwca 1997 r. Prawo o ruchu drogowym. Dz. U. 1997 nr 98 poz. 602.
Vrabel J., Sarkan B., Vashisth A.: Change of driver's reaction time depending on the amount of alcohol consumed by the driver – the case study. The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji. 2020, 87(1), 47–56, DOI: 10.14669/AM.VOL87.ART4.
Wen T.H., Chin W.C.B., Lai P.C.: Understanding the topological characteristics and flow omplexity of urban traffic congestion. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications. 2017, 473, 166–177, DOI: 10.1016/j.physa.2017.01.035.
Zhuk M., Kovalуshуn V., Royko Y., Barvinska K.: Research on drivers' reaction time in different conditions. Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2017, 2(3–86), 24–31, DOI: 10.15587/1729-4061.2017.98103.
Žuraulis V., Nagurnas S., Pečeliūnas R., Pumputis R., Skačkauskas P.: The analysis of drivers’ reaction time using cell phone in the case of vehicle stabilization task. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. 2018, 31(5), 633–648, DOI: 10.13075/ijomeh.1896.01264.
Possibilities of Using Bluetooth Low Energy Beacon Technology to Locate Objects Internally: A Case Study
Jan Ližbetin, Jan Pečman
Research into the opinion of professional drivers on improving road safety by using the front brake light
Miloš Poliak, Kristián Čulík, Iwona Hajduk, Jaroslava Kubanova
The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji
Deklaracja dostępności