Neutralization of CMR documents
Kelvin Cheu 1  
Miloš Poliak 2  
Jana Tomicová 3  
Jozef Gnap 2  
Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso
Department of road and urban transport, University of Zilina, Slovak Republic
Department of road and urban transport, University of Zilina
Miloš Poliak   

Department of road and urban transport, University of Zilina, Slovak Republic
Data publikacji: 29-03-2019
Data nadesłania: 24-02-2019
Data ostatniej rewizji: 19-03-2019
Data akceptacji: 22-03-2019
The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji 2019;83(1):175–184
In 1956, there was an important step in international road freight transport. The CMR Convention, the main purpose of which was to unify the rules for the international transport of goods and thereby promote the development of international trade, was concluded. From a practical point of view, this is of great importance to both carriers and transporters. Similarly, this Convention describes the most important document for the carriage of goods and that is the consignment note CMR. In recent times, the term neutralization has been used in conjunction with this document in transport. We want to clarify the importance of this word in transport. The aim is also to find out to what extent carriers have real experience with CMR neutralization and when transporting what kind of goods the most frequent neutralization of documents is used. The purpose of this contribution is to explain what the term neutralization in transport means, because there is no legal regulation or norm to define it. This term is used mainly in chemistry. Furthermore, we would like to verify the hypothesis that the neutralization of consignment note CMR is actually used in international road freight transport and whether neutralization is only used for a particular type of goods, such as electronics. To verify the hypotheses we conducted a survey at the carriers.
Arrunada B., Gonzalez-Diaz M., Fernandez A. Determinants of organizational form: transaction costs and institutions in the European trucking industry. Industrial and Corporate Change, 13 (6), 2004, 867–882, DOI: 10.1093/icc/dth033.
Bonnet J.C. CMR - International Convention of Geneva relating to the Contract for the International carriage of goods by Road 19 May 1956. Uniform Law Review, 21(4), 2016, 418-420, DOI: 10.1093/ulr/unw052.
Defossez D. CMR: what if the courts got it wrong? Uniform Law Review, 21(1), 2016, 75–100, DOI: 10.1093/ulr/unw003.
Denes A. Considerations on the contract for the international carriage of goods by road. Revista De La Facultad De Derecho, 44, 2018, 253-285, DOI: 10.22187/rfd2018n44a9.
Ferrer J. C. The Cmr Convention - A Pillar of International Carriage of Goods by Road. Uniform Law Review, 11(3), 2006, 517-521, DOI: 10.1093/ulr/11.3.517.
Kan S. M., Kurmangaliyeva S. G., Plekhanov P. A., et al. Some aspects of methods elicitation economic expediency cargo carriage the different types of transport. Bulletin Of The National Academy Of Sciences Of The Republic Of Kazakhstan, 6, 2015, 66-70.
Lamont-Black S. The UK Supreme Court on jurisdiction over successive CMR Convention carriers and European Union rules. Uniform Law Review, 21(4), 2016, 487–509, DOI: 10.1093/ulr/unw041.
Lewandowski P. Attempts to protect the internal market for road transport in specific European Union countries. Scientific Journals Of The Maritime University Of Szczecin-Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Morskiej W Szczecinie, (47), 2016, 141-146, DOI: 10.17402/161.
Lorenc A., Kuznar M. An Intelligent System to Predict Risk and Costs of Cargo Thefts in Road Transport. International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation, 8(4), 2018, 284-293.
Mukherjee A., Zhao L. Profitable parallel trade in unionized. Journal of Economics, 107(3), 2012, 267–276, DOI: 10.1007/s00712-012-0267-7.
Onstein A. T. C., Tavasszy L. A., van Damme D. A. Factors determining distribution structure decisions in logistics: a literature review and research agenda. Transport Reviews, 39(2), 2019, 243-260, DOI: 10.1080/01441647.2018.1459929.
Poliak M., Poliaková A. Relation of social legislation in road transport on driver’s work quality. Communications in Computer and Information Science, 531, 300-310, 2015, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-24577-5_30.
Quigley I. Freight Carrier`s Liability under the CMR convention 1956. Acta Oeconomica Pragensia, 14(4), 2006, 41–45.
Radionov N. Limitation of liability right in road freight carriage in Croatia: an extinct institute. Uniform Law Review, 21(4), 2016, 457–468, DOI: 10.1093/ulr/unw035.
Schelin J. CMR Convention in a law and economics perspective. Uniform Law Review, 21(4), 2016, 434–440, DOI: 10.1093/ulr/unw036.
Sker T. Analysis of Road Carriers Liability for Robbery of Cargo According to CMR Convention. Promet-Traffic-Traffico, 15(6), 2003, 371-374, DOI: 10.7307/ptt.v15i6.903.
Spanjaart M. The successive carrier: a relic from the past. Uniform Law Review, 21(4), 2016, 522-532, DOI: 10.1093/ulr/unw038.
Sternberg H., Hofmann E. Impact of the european road transport market deregulation: the case of cabotage in germany. International Journal of Business and Systems Research, 11(4), 2017, 417-428.
Stothers Ch. Parallel Trade in Europe: Intellectual Property, Competition and Regulatory Law. Hart Publishing 2007, ISBN 978-1-84113-437-6.
Szymonik A. International logistics, Lodz University of Technology 2014, ISBN 978-83-7283-611-3.
United Nations, Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of goods by Road, Geneva, 16 May 1956.
Verheyen W. National judges as gatekeepers to the CMR Convention. Uniform Law Review, 21(4), 2016, 441-456, DOI: 10.1093/ulr/unw039.
Vukovic A. Units of Account in International and Domestic Transport Law. Nase More, 60(1-2), 2013, 11-16.